The Ecological Paradigm of State Ownership Concept in Indonesia

MHD Zakiul Fikri


After the fourth amendment adds 2 sections to article 33 of the 1945 Constitution,
those are sections (4) and (5), so the changes cannot be considered without legal
consequences. The environmental norm had been invited to article 33 section (4) of
the constitution of Indonesia as the highest law in Indonesia. Hence, this article
aims to explain the ecological paradigm framework of state ownership concept
which regulated in article 33 sections (2) and (3) of the 1945 Constitution. There
are at least two issues that will be answered in this article, those are: first, how the
laws, jurisprudence and legal expert explain the concept of state ownership; and
second, how the configuration of the ecological paradigm of state ownership
concept and its legal implication to using of Indonesian natural resources.


Fourth Amendment, Constitution, Ecological Paradigm, State Ownership, Natural Resources.

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